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    Description

    Napoleonic Era Rijksdaalder Set Rarity in Superb Condition

    Netherlands East Indies, French Influence 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 1000 Rijksdaalders 1810 Pick S171; S172; S173; S174; S175; S176 Complete Denomination Set PMG Very Fine 30 (4); Choice Very Fine 35; Extremely Fine 40.
    In January 1808, Herman Willem Daendels arrived in Batavia as new Governor General of the Netherlands East Indies. The time of the VOC was over and its successor, the Council for Asian Possessions and Establishments, had been abolished by decree of the King of Holland on July 29, 1806. Daendels was sent out by the Minister of Commerce and Colonies to administer, along with the Council of the Indies in Batavia, the King's possessions in the East Indies.

    His prospects were not very favorable. The island of Java had become completely isolated. There was plenty of merchandise; the warehouses were, in fact, overcrowded, but merchant shipping was completely blocked. Stagnation of the revenues led to a lack of funds for the government, which was particularly problematic. Daendels could not afford to limit spending because the island was too fortified for defensive purposes. Moreover, the government had fixed financial obligations, such as the payment for coffee and other goods that the natives grew for the government.

    One way to get funds was to create paper money. This had already happened earlier in the Dutch East Indies. Daendels also tried to obtain cash through the sale of domain goods. In 1809 and 1810, for example, he sold the areas around Tenggeran, Karawang, and Bantam (and some smaller areas) to private individuals. Later in 1810 he focused on Java's Oosthoek where there were a number of lands that generated relatively little money for the government. For example, the districts of Bezoekie and Panaroekan were previously leased for only 9,000 Rds ("rijksdaalders", the money of account) per year to Han Chanpit, the "Captain of the Chinese" of Surabaya. Han bought the two areas for 400,000 Spanish dollars (533,333 Rds). He assumed over 508,959 Rds in debt from the government and paid 24,374 Rds in cash.

    The next step was the Probolingo Regency, which contained large tracts of unexplored fertile land but did not generate much income for the government (2,000 Spanish dollars in recognition fees, 70 koyans [a unit of weight] of rice, and 140 Spanish dollars for 14 leased bird nest caves a year). In East Java, the family of Han Chanpit was actually the only one rich enough to pay for this piece of land at the time and so it was offered to him first. He was willing to pay 600,000 Spanish dollars (800,000 Rds), but could not raise that amount quickly. Negotiations were then started with his brother Han Tikko, the "Captain of the Chinese" from Pasoeroean.ii It turned out that he was willing to pay a million Rds, but only in twenty half-yearly installments, spread over a period of ten years. The deal was guaranteed by a mortgage not only on the property of Probolingo itself, but also on the areas that Han Chanpit had acquired Besoekie and Panaroekan.

    Daendels accepted this offer. In order to generate cash in the short term, he created paper money in the amount of one million rijksdaalders that was to circulate in East Java as "silver money." With each repayment by Han Tikko, one twentieth of this paper money could be exchanged for silver coin, with the entire issue of notes being completely withdrawn and redeemed in ten years.

    This "Probolingo credit paper" was put into circulation by a decree of December 3, 1810. It was stated that the following number of notes would be issued:

    200 notes 1000 Rijksdaalders, numbers 1 to 200
    300 notes 500 Rijksdaalders, numbers 1 to 300
    400 notes 400 Rijksdaalders, numbers 1 to 400
    500 notes 300 Rijksdaalders, numbers 1 to 500
    700 notes 200 Rijksdaalders, numbers 1 to 700
    1000 notes 100 Rijksdaalders, numbers 1 to 1000

    The notes were signed by the members of the Council of India W. van Hoesen and J. C. Romswinckel, by Administrator C. W. Thalman and Recipient General R. Coop à Groen, and finally for "gezien" (oversight) by the Director General of Finance and Domains P. Chassé. The notes were declared legal tender in the districts of Java's Oosthoek and Java's Noord-Oostkust for their face value in silver money, and severe penalties were enacted for those who would not accept it as the equivalent of silver coin or who would charge a discount to accept it.

    Every half year, one twentieth of the value of the entire issue was to be retired, at the end of April, and at the end of November. For each denomination, starting with the highest value, lottery tickets with the serial numbers of the circulating notes were deposited in a container. Orphan boys were designated to pull the desired number of tickets from the container and then selected numbers were published. The owners of the notes with these drawn serial numbers were to then be invited to return them to one of the offices in Java for silver money. After this, the exchanged notes were to be burned in public in Batavia.

    The first payment by Han Tikko was set at the end of June 1811. The first lottery, covering one twentieth of the issue value of all Probolingo paper took place on May 31, 1811. The drawn serial numbers were announced and published in the Bataviasche Koloniale Courant. The time set to exchange these selected notes for silver coin was set to begin on July 1, 1811.

    However, the political situation was changing rapidly. On February 17, 1811, the news reached Java that the Netherlands had been incorporated into France. Daendels now served on behalf of the French government for a short time, but was replaced by J.W. Janssens as Governor General in May 1811. A few months later, Java passed into English hands. The British army landed at Chillingching on August 4, 1811 and forced the island to capitulate on September 18, 1811. The administration of the island was now in the hands of Lieutenant General Thomas Stamford Raffles.

    The lottery drawing for serial numbers of Probolingo banknotes to be withdrawn in the fall of 1811 was added. However, on February 29, 1812, the first issue of the Java Government Gazette appeared. It contained the publication of a decree of February 14, 1812, announcing how the new regime would proceed with the redemption of the Probolingo credit notes.

    To begin with, the English regime confirmed the agreement between Daendels and Han Tikko. It announced that the second draw of the Probolingo bank note serial numbers would take place on March 1, 1812, in front of a committee consisting of the President of the Supreme Court, the Secretary of the Government, the Accountant, and the Vice Treasurer.

    Lieutenant General Raffles, however, scrapped the rule that the notes had to always be accepted as silver money without a discount. The Probolingo notes remained legal tender in the two eastern districts of Java, both between private individuals and upon acceptance by the government greenhouses in Samarang and Surabaya. However, moving forward, it was quoted at a rate that was periodically recalculated and published to the public. The authorities in the two capitals were to report every Saturday what the average rate of the notes had been in the preceding week, so that the value for the coming week could be determined.


    Note. Value of Probolingo paper as published in the Java Government Gazette of February 13, 1813.

    These current rates of the Probolingo notes were published regularly in the Gazette. The first statement that was found, however, only dates from June 6, 1812. Initially, the exchange rate was specified as the number of Spanish dollars per 100 Rds of Probolingo notes. However, on November 1, 1813, it was decided that from January 1, 1814, the Javanese rupee would replace the Spanish dollar as the standard currency of Java, so that from that date all amounts would be expressed in rupees. There was, however, a delay in implementing this. The published daily exchange rate of the Probolingo paper was not expressed in rupees until June 1814, and first in Surabaya and then in Samarang (NB At that time the rupee was valued at 30 stuivers, while the dollar was valued at 66 stuivers). These daily rate specifications are found in the Gazette between June 6, 1812 and August 12, 1815, but only sporadically in the last year. During this period the exchange rate (as specified by the English government) remained fairly stable and fluctuated between 35 and 45 Spanish dollars per 100 Rds (see Appendix 1).

    In the meantime, the semi-annual draws under English rule took place at the town hall of Batavia every spring and autumn. For the exchange, the country's treasuries in Surabaya and Samarang were designated, the principal places of the districts where the paper was legal tender. From the fourth draw, the English regime, especially for owners living in Batavia, offered the possibility of obtaining the value of their Probolingo notes in treasury notes in Batavia.


    Note. Announcement of the 6th draw of Probolingo banknotes in the Java Government Gazette.

    In 1813, the circulation of the Probolingo notes seems to have come to an end. In Probolingo, which was sold to Han Tikko, a rebellion broke out in May 1813, allegedly because of its strict and sometimes unjust rule. The insurgents killed Han Tikko and two English officers who were visiting him at the time, and plundered the city of Probolingo. This was followed by an army of no less than 800 men coming from Surabaya to destroy the rebels. Han Tikko's descendants could not meet his financial obligations and Probolongo returned to Government ownership.

    Raffles, the English administrator, then proposed that since the payments that formed the basis for issuing the credit notes had ceased, all Probolingo bills would be redeemable in 6% interest-bearing Government treasury bills. The exchange rate of the Probolingo paper was to be the highest quoted daily rate at the time that Han Tikko died, namely 40 Spanish dollars for 100 Rds. The exchange offer was announced in Batavia, Samarang, and Surabaya between September 1 and October 1, 1813.iii However, it appears that several holders of the paper were not inclined to make use of this offer. It was therefore announced in October 1813 that the semi-annual raffles would continue as usual.iv

    A few months after the tenth draw, on August 16, 1816, Java was returned to the Dutch government. This takeover did not change the obligations that were in place regarding the Probolingo notes. Publications of the daily rate were no longer found in the newspaper. The government postponed the eleventh draw for half a year so that on July 2, 1817 a double amount of tickets was drawn.

    Under the new regime, the president and two members of the Court of Auditors oversaw the draws on behalf of the government. After each draw, a notice appeared in the newspaper to advise when and where the drawn serial numbers could be exchanged. Direct redemption in Batavia was also possible beginning with the thirteenth draw.

    The nineteenth draw on September 30, 1820 was the last of the series. After this, on March 22, 1821, it was simply determined that the remaining Probolingo notes (without specifying their numbers) were considered as having been drawn and could not be redeemed after April 15, 1821.

    Some Probolingo bills were in the news for special reason. In the Java Government Gazette of February 13, 1813, there was an advertisement from one Z. van Hek who reported that two Probolingo bills, namely 300 Rds D 66 and 100 Rds F 283, had been stolen from him. He warned the public not to accept these notes and asked the Treasurer not to pay them out in the event of a possible lottery. A few years later, another bill, 200 Rds E 222, also appeared to be discredited. On March 16, 1819, the Chief Financial Officer called on the owners of these three notes to report within three months with evidence that they had received the notes fairly and without sufficient evidence, they would lose any compensation rights. Ticket 100 Rds F 283 was drawn in October 1820; any information about the actual redemption of this note is unknown.

    In the course of 1821, the vast majority of the Probolingo notes must have disappeared from circulation. It appears, however, that the burning of the notes did not always take place. A portion of the notes probably ended up in an archive (in Samarang?), and a number of them must have been put on the market at a later date. It seems they were offered in groups of all six denominations. As a result, the higher values ??are now not rarer than the lower values, despite their more limited edition. Since the groups were first released to collectors, some have been broken up.

    The general description of the tickets is as follows:
    The paper is provided with a watermark, either the text lydig & mester or a crowned oval shield in which a figure (a soldier with a feathered helmet?) is holding a spear with freedom hat and a three-leaf flower.

    Translation of the inscription:

    Part of the sum of one million Rijksdaalders silver money, for which the Dutch Indian Government sold the Probolingo Regent, to be paid in ten years, according to today's Publication, all six months with fifty thousand Rijksdaalders silver money, and this under special association of the provinces Probolingo, Besoekie and Panaroekan, and a guarantee from the prescribed Indian Government.
    [and one paragraph text below in Malay script]

    Behind "N °." is filled in ink with the number of the note, as well as in a blank space in the middle of the first line of the Malay part. Below, are the four signatures described above; bottom left under "SEEN." is the signature of Chassé.

    Furthermore, a stamp was printed in the lower left with red ink with the decorative letters LN above 1810 within a pearl circle. A similar stamp, but with the face value of the ticket (1000 to 100) above the decorative letters LN and without the year, is printed twice next to each other on the top of the back of the ticket. On this stamp, however, the image is applied inwards, so that the print shows the letters, numbers, and pearls as recesses in a red field. The intertwined decorative letters LN, the initials of the King of Holland, have exactly the same shape as on the copper money from Surabaya from 1810.

    At least as interesting as the common features are the differences that distinguish the notes from each other. As with other Indian issues, the government had apparently been very concerned that notes of lower value would be fraudulently converted into higher denominations. After all, on every note the value was printed in two places only, apart from the two stamps on the back. Probably for that reason, the denominations show many typographical differences so that they can be clearly distinguished from each other even when the text has been tampered with. The most striking differences between the various denominations are the following:

    1.The size of the banknotes ? those from 1000 to 300 Rds are 24 to 25 cm wide by 19 to 20 cm; those from 200 and 100 Rds are approximately 19 x 17.5 to 20.5 cm.
    2. The color of the top two lines of Dutch text ? the top line (Litt ...) is printed in red on the banknotes of 1000 and 500 Rds, but the second line is on those of 400 to 100 Rds (Zegge ...) red. The word "GEZIEN." is red on all notes, the remaining text is printed in black.
    3. The size of the letters ? the Dutch text is printed with a font size that decreases in two steps at the 1000 and 500 Rds, the 400 and 300, and the 200 and 100 Rds. The Malay text does not have this distinction, but in the letters of the word "GEZIEN." is again a variation where the font size is always one step smaller on the 1000, the 500, the 400 and 300, and the 200 and 100 Rds.
    4. The paragraph with Dutch text is made up of 8 lines for the 1000 and 500 Rds, 7 lines for the 400 and 300 Rds, and 5 lines for the 200 and 100 Rds. The Malay text always has 7 lines.
    5. The value in the top right is expressed in "Rijksd:" for the 1000 and 500 Rds, but in full in "Rijksdaalders" for the four lower values.
    6. The height of the frame decreases from 1000 to 100 Rds and has a different size for all denominations.
    7. The shape of the frame, which is made up of separate characters in the stamp (which can usually be distinguished separately in the printed devices) changes shape - with the 1000 Rds the characters form a single line, with the 500, 300, and 100 Rds a triple line, and with the 400 and 200 Rds a row of brackets with the point outwards. Sometimes corner pieces are applied, namely with the 1000 and 100 Rds on the two upper corners, with the 500 Rds on all four corners and with the 300 Rds on three corners (bottom right missing). Furthermore, the upper edge of the 1000 Rds in the middle shows a small triangular ornament - that of the 400 Rds two "superscript" stars, and that of the 200 Rds two "subscript" stars plus one "subscript" star on each side edge.

    The Probolingo notes are cataloged in the following works:
    - J. Mevius Catalog of Paper Money of the V.O.C., Neteherlands East Indies and Indonesia, from 1782 to 1981. Vriezenveen 1981 pp. 60 to 65
    - G.S. Cuhaj (ed., Krause Publications) Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, Specialized Issues 12th edition 2013 pp. 870 no. S171 to S176
    - S. Handjaja et al. (Ed.) Katalog uang kertas Indonesia 1782-2010 Jakarta 2009 no. H29 to H34
    - Uno dan Nanang Oeang noesantara Jakarta 2015 pp. 93 to 98

    The following Probolingo banknotes were available for research:

    19 copies of the Dutch Numismatic Collection (NNC) in Amsterdam, two complete series in private collections (PC-1 and PC-2) and one single copy in private possession from MPO auction 36 (2012) lot 5481. In addition, the notes shown in the aforementioned catalogs have been examined. The list below gives as source the collection, possibly with inventory number, or the catalog (KUKI = Handjaja, ON = Uno then Nanang) with catalog number.

    There often appears to be written text on the Probolingo notes. It is nice to see that there are examples divided among present owners that, in view of the similarities of the notes, would have previously belonged to the same owner.

    Sometimes the two serial numbers on the front are fully written in text, as in No. 16 stands for "(Zegge) N ° 16". The owner has noted down his own name or company name a number of times. With a number of notes, there are inscriptions on the reverse side about their lottery and exchange, sometimes quite extensive. A few notes that were exchanged in 1817 and 1818 also state the amount paid out: per 100 national denominators nominal value (of 48 stuivers) 160 Indian guilders (fixed in 30 stuivers in 1817) were given.

    1000 Rijksdaalders:
    u No.: Ex: Written text: /u
    A 91 PB H-34 vz. "(Zegge) ..."; kz. "Receifed the contence from the Samarang Treasury (getekend:) A. Klerks ...."
    A 130 PC-1 vz. "Zegge N° Eenhondert dertig" (eenmaal); kz. handtekening "J. D. Hartilieff"
    A 131 NNC DNB-10228 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een honderd een en dertig" (eenmaal)
    A 147 PC-2 none
    A 149 NNC 1994-5117 none
    A 165 NNC 1994-5118 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een honderd vijf en zestig" (tweemaal); kz. "received the contence from the Samarang Treasury (getekend:) C. W. Klein"
    A 168 Krause S176 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een honderd agt en zestig" (tweemaal); kz niet afgebeeld
    = ON 98 vz. idem; kz. "Contents received from the Samarang Treasury on the 22d of November 1815 (getekend:) N. A. Holmberg de Beckfelt"
    500 Rijksdaalders:
    u No.: Ex: Written text: /u
    B 97 PC-1 none
    B 162 NNC 1994-5116 none
    B 168 PC 2 vz. "Geroyeerd" schuin door de tekst.; kz: "De nummer 168 van dit Probolingo credit papier bij de 14de trekking der loterij op den 24th Julij 1818 uitgeloot en het bedragen daar van tot agthonderd guldens op heeden door mij uit 's lands kassa te Samarang ontvangen zijnde diend deeze tot kwitantie. Samarang den 4 Sepember 1818 (getekend:) A. Hendriks" en "Voor de uitbetaling op dato voorschreven (getekend:) J. de Bruin".
    B 203 NNC 1994-5115 kz. "Content ... Samarang Treasury 7 february 1814 (getekend:) ..."
    B 209 NNC DNB-10229 none
    B 220 ON 97 vz. geen; kz. niet afgebeeld
    B .... KUKI H-33 vz. "(Zegge) ..." (eenmaal)
    400 Rijksdaalders:
    u No.: Ex: Written text: /u
    C 14 ON 96 vz. "Zegge N° veertien"; kz. niet afgebeeld
    C 16 PC-2 vz. "(Zegge) N° zestien" (tweemaal); kz. "Received the contence from the Samarang Treasury (getekend:) A. Klerks / acting secretary to the Orphan Chamber"
    C 74 NNC DNB-10230 kz. "Rec'd the contents from the Samarang Treasury 2d Sep'er 1813 (getekend:) H. Bidwell"
    C 123 NNC 1994-5114 kz. "Contents received from the Samarang Treasury Samarang 2d Sept 1813 (getekend:) John H. Hinsch"
    C 139 KUKI H-32 kz. "Rec'd the contents from the Samarang Treasury 2th Sept 1813 H. Bidwell"
    C 179 PC-1 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een honderd negen en zeventig" (tweemaal) en "Paid at Samarang" (rechtopstaand door de tekst)
    300 Rijksdaalders:
    u No.: Ex: Written text: /u
    D 24 ON 95 vz. "Geroyeerd" schuin door de tekst; kz. "den 2 Maart 1812 uitgetrokken"
    = MPO 36-5481
    D 49 KUKI H-31 vz. "(Zegge) N° Neegen en veertig" (tweemaal), "... H: Buijs Dep Accountant" en "C. Assey (?) ..."; kz. "@" en "Ontfangen den 27 april 1812 (?) S. J. Bouberg"
    D 116 NNC 1994-5112 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een honderd zestien" (tweemaal); kz. "den 2 Maart 1812 uitgetrokken"
    D 159 NNC 1994-5113 vz. "(Zegge) Honderd negen en vijftig" (eenmaal), onderaan: "ontfangen ... Herlugt (?)"
    D 177 PC-2 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een honderd zeven en zeventig" (tweemaal)
    D 243 NNC DNB-10231 vz. "(Zegge) N° twee honderd drie en veertig" (tweemaal)
    D 267 PC-1 vz. "(Zegge) N° twee honderd zeven en zestig"(tweemaal); kz. "van den Prijs agent Tackes (?)" en "... 2 Maart 1819 uitgetrokken"
    200 Rijksdaalders:
    u No.: Ex: Written text: /u
    E 228 NNC DNB-10232 kz. "received the contence from the Samarang Treasury (getekend:) N. Gerlach"
    E 258 NNC 1994-5110 kz. "received the contence from the Samarang Treasury (getekend:) A. Klerks acting secretary to the orphans chamber"
    = Mevius 60
    E 284 PC-2 vz. handtekening "Deans Scott & Co"
    E 415 ON 94 vz. "(Zegge) N° Vier honderd vijftien" (tweemaal); kz. "Rec'd the contents from the Samarang Treasury 2d Sept 1813 (getekend:) H. Bidwell"
    E 595 NCC 1994-5111 vz. "Deans Scott & Co"
    E 642 PC-1 kz. "niet uitgeloot"
    E .... KUKI H-30 vz. "(Zegge) ..." (tweemaal); kz. "Rec'd the contents from the Samarang Theasury 2d Sept ... (getekend:) H. Bidwell"
    100 Rijksdaalders:
    u No.: Ex: Written text: /u
    F 4 NNC 1994-5107 vz. " ... " en "Ontvangen uit 's Lands Thesorie van Sourabaya (getekend:) H. Muller"
    F 5 NNC 1994-5108 none
    F 122 NNC DNB-10233 vz. "(Zegge) N° Honderd twee en twintig" (tweemaal)
    F 131? KUKI H-29 kz. "De nummer van dit Probolingosche crediet papier bij de 13 trekking der loterij op den 30 December 1817 uitgeloot en het bedragen daar van tot Een honderd zestig Ind guldens (ƒ 160) op heden door mij uit 's lands kassa te Samarang ontvangen zijnde, diend tot kwitantie. Samarang den 15 ... 1818 / De secret: der Weesk / N: A. Holmberg de Beckfelt" en "Voor de uitbetaling op dato voorschreven (getekend:) J. de Bruin".
    F 281 ON 93 vz. handtekening "Deans Scott & Co"; kz niet afgebeeld
    F 1371 PC-1 vz. "(Zegge) N° Een duijzend drie honderd een en dertig" (eenmaal); kz. "treasurij notes / den 30 Decb 1817 uitgeloot"
    F 1424 PC-2 kz. "Rec'd the contents (getekend:) Chapman Rutter & Co"
    F 1820 NCC 1994-5109 vz. "Geroyeerd" schuin door de tekst; kz. "De nummer van dit Probolingo Credit Papier bij de 15e trekking der loting op den 3e November 1818 uitgeloot en het bedragen daarvan tot Een honderd zestig guldens Indisch op heden door mij uit 's Lands kas te Samarang ontvangen zijnde, diendende deze tot kwitantie / Samarang, den 28e December 1818 (getekend:) Deans Scott & Co ..." en linksonder "voor de uitbetaling / De fung: Residt van Samarang (getekend:) J. de Bruin"
    F 1835 Pick S171 vz. "Ontvangen C. Rosemeier" en "Fiat betalen / De Resident / (getekend:) ..."

    Sources:

    Online source: delpher.nl (Bataviasche Koloniale Courant, Java Government Gazette and Bataviasche Courant). In this article the spelling of names and places is maintained as found in the Javanese newspapers.

    i J. D. Hartilieff is de schrijver van 'Een instructie voor een inlandsch hoofd uit den Engelschen tijd' (1813) verschenen in Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië 8 (1862).
    ii Nicolaas Anthony Holmberg de Beckfelt (1779-1821), secretaris van de Weeskamer te Samarang.
    iii Waarschijnlijk W. Bidwell, luitenant bij de Bengal Volunteers, in 1812 te Samarang benoemd tot Assistent Commissaris Generaal.
    iv Deans Scott & Co, handelshuis in Samarang.
    v Chapman, Rutter & Co, handelshuis in Samarang.
    vi H. D. L. Norman De Britsche heerschappij over Java en onderhorigheden (1811-1816) 's-Gravenhage 1857.
    vii Besluit van 13 augustus 1813, gepubliceerd in de Java Government Gazette van 14 augustus 1813.
    viii Besluit van 23 oktober 1813, gepubliceerd in de Java Government Gazette van diezelfde datum.
    ix Bataviasche Courant van 31 maart 1821.
    x J. D. Hartilieff is de schrijver van 'Een instructie voor een inlandsch hoofd uit den Engelschen tijd' (1813) verschenen in Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië 8 (1862).
    xi Nicolaas Anthony Holmberg de Beckfelt (1779-1821), secretaris van de Weeskamer te Samarang.
    xii Waarschijnlijk W. Bidwell, luitenant bij de Bengal Volunteers, in 1812 te Samarang benoemd tot Assistent Commissaris Generaal.
    xiii Deans Scott & Co, handelshuis in Samarang.
    xiv Chapman, Rutter & Co, handelshuis in Samarang.
    A special thank you to the owners and managers of the Probolingo notes used in my research.
    Contributed by Marcel van der Beek (Total: 6 notes)



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